Paul McDonald (1947-2020)

Announcements | December 21st, 2020

I am sad to report that Paul Mc Donald died of cancer, aged 73, on Saturday 1st August 2020, at his home in Ramsey, Hants.
As Director of the Cryogenic Industrial Advisory Unit, Institute of Cryogenics, University of Southampton, he was an incredibly popular teacher of post-graduates, and simultaneously a wide ranging research engineer of cryogenics, able to provide reliable answers to many low temperature problems.
During his 50 years working period, 1970 to 2020, Paul made many major contributions to Cryogenics and Cryogenic Engineering.
These contributions have revolutionised cryogenics from 10 cm diameter laboratory cryostats of 1970 to the monster 30 to 50 metre diameter storage tanks and the shipping of bulk cryogenic liquids in 2020 for industry, medicine and Space.
Following his Masters' degree in Cryogenics from the University of Lancaster, Paul joined Oxford Instruments in 1970, designing and installing low temperature cryogenic equipment around the world. By 1980, he was in the team that designed and built the first 500 MHz NMR superconducting magnet system. This provided an immediate contribution towards the first prototype MRI system, cooled by liquid helium, and requiring a refill of liquid every 100 days. For this invention and its medical importance, Oxford Instruments gained a Queen's Award for Technological Achievement, which Paul and two colleagues received from the Queen at a Palace reception. At the same time, Paul was working on the development of the first Continuous Flow Cryostat, which relied on his invention of a sintered copper heat exchanger and consequently avoided the100 day refill problem experienced in a hospital environment.
Cryocoolers with 'dry' helium cooling were not available until much later.
In 1979, the University of Southampton decided to set up the Institute of Cryogenics as a separate teaching and research department. Almost immediately, the Institute was overwhelmed by the industrial problems being met and required many research projects to be set up. At the same time a variety of teaching and training courses were being requested.
In 1982, Paul was recruited from Oxford Instruments and appointed Research Director of the Cryogenic Industrial Advisory Unit within the Institute.
The first success of Paul soon after his arrival was the recognition of the reliable and rugged performance of calibrated silicon diode thermometers, over the whole range of cryogenic temperatures from ambient at 273K to liquid helium at 1 K. A local Southampton firm was then persuaded to build silicon diode thermometers in a capsule for general use in cryogenics. The associated simple and reliable temperature measurements led to the sale of many such thermometers around the world, including NASA space rockets up to the present day. Their accuracy also led to a great deal of cryogenic fluid dynamics findings on low temperature fluids and their extraordinary high heat transfer properties down to 1 K.
Paul's success with accurate thermometers led to the 1990 development of cold electronics for data collection and digital functions for all sorts of instruments operating directly at working temperatures down to liquid helium.
Progress with cold electronics required testing the operation of all manufactured electronic systems when dunked in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium baths. Only 5% were found to keep working and these were selected to enable the development of cold electronics to move forward. The findings were published in 1992 during a conference in Houston, Texas, USA, when the main application was for instruments on the very large model aircraft in the very large cryogenic wind tunnels at Southampton University Aeronautics Department, NASA Langley, Virginia, USA, and Cologne, Germany.
These findings on cold electronics are now providing the grounds work for Quantum Computing at liquid helium temperatures in 2021.
Successful development of cryogenic concrete and frost-proof concrete as building materials was a straightforward finding, with collaboration from other departments at Southampton University.
Conventional concrete contains a surplus of free water after the concrete paste has hardened to a high strength structural solid. Subsequent removal of this surplus water by vacuum pumping, enables the structural solid to avoid crumbling, below the ice point at 273 K: the frost proof concrete is now also much stronger.
Following his many contributions to cryogenic technology, Paul's multiple areas of research have included the study of different foam materials at temperature ranges from 273 K down to Liquid Nitrogen at 77 and LNG at 120K.
Computer controlled production of thermal conductivity and insulation data enabled rapid testing of many possible insulation materials, in particular to reduce the expensive boil-off of LNG gas from stationary storage and shipping tanks.
Paul's unique up-to-date data on foams will also be valuable in the global distribution of Coronavirus 19 vaccines when/if they require freezing down to 193 K in thousands of low loss containers.
Paul's low conductivity insulations data will also be used for the next generation of space rockets using LNG as rocket fuel, in place of liquid hydrogen, enabling much larger rocket loads flying into space, to the Moon and Mars and beyond, as soon as 2030.
In conclusion, this obituary shows just some of the contributions Paul has made to cryogenic technology over 50 years of research engineering, all of which are being used today, and will be carried into world-wide future applications.
He will be greatly missed by all research and teaching staff together with the hundreds of former students of the Institute of Cryogenics, and will be remembered in countless ways by cryogenic engineers around the world.
His contribution to the revolution in cryogenics will never be forgotten.

Ralph Scurlock
Emeritus Professor of Cryogenic Engineering,
University of Southampton

CSE General Meeting 2020

Announcements | November 26th, 2020

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic this year's European Cryogenics Day and the General Meeting (GM) of the CSE could unfortunately not take place as originally planned.
The GM 2020 will now be organized as online event on zoom and is scheduled for December 3rd, 2020 starting at 8:45 am CET.

This event opens with a virtual get-together allowing us to setup the meeting and arrange for the voting process in the General Meeting. The GM will start at 9:00 or shortly after, as soon as all participants have been registered. After the General Meeting of the CSE, we will have a program with three presentations.  
Please use the following link for registration:
Also presenters that have submitted abstracts are requested to register for the meeting via the link.

The tentative schedule is as follows:
08:45 opening Zoom session, virtual get-together and registration (agenda)
09:00 General Meeting of the Cryogenics Society of Europe  
10:20 (Virtual) Coffee break
10:30 Pascale Dauguet, Air Liquide: “Review of Air Liquide last 2K Cryoplant projects and last turbomachine developments” (abstract)
10:45 Sun Nora-bo, Pride Cryogenics: “Introduction to Pride Cryogenics: company and main products” (abstract)
11:55 Bellisimo Yu, Vacree Technologies: “Introduction to Vacree Technologies” (abstract)
11:05 Final remarks
11:30 Closing  
Please note that only CSE members have right of voting at the GM but attendance is open to non-members as well. Feel free to forward this communication to any interested party.
We look forward to welcoming you at the GM2020!
The CSE Board


Agenda of the CSE General Meeting

1.     Welcome
2.     Agenda of this GM
3.     Minutes 5th GM in Lund (7 October 2019)
4.     Annual report
5.     Finances:

  • Accounts for 2019 plus audit report;
  • Accounts 2020;
  • Budget 2020

6.     CSE support program
7.     Update on Cryocooler Survey
8.     Audit committee
9.     CSE events in 2021
10.   Next CSE-GM
11.   AOB


Abstracts of the presentations


Review of Air Liquide last 2K Cryoplant projects and last turbomachine developments
Authors: J.-M. Bernhardt, C. Gondrand, Y. Fabre, P. Dauguet
Refrigeration power at 1.8K or 2K is needed for most of the large particle accelerators, in order
to get optimised operating conditions of superconducting RF cavities. Air Liquide has
developed (since the 80's) Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressors in order to decrease the
pressure on helium baths down to liquid/gas equilibrium pressure in the range 10-30 mbar abs.
for 1.8K-2K helium bath temperatures. These compressors have demonstrated their reliability
and efficiency, with references successfully operated for more than 10 to 30 years at CEA Tore
Supra (now WEST), JLAB CEBAF and CERN LHC. The projects needing 1.8K - 2 K
refrigeration have multiplied in the last 10 years thanks to huge investments of US, Chinese
and Korean governments in the field of accelerators, giving us opportunities to design,
manufacture, install and start-up new 2K Cryoplants and apply our last turbomachine
developments to these projects. The presentation will be a short review of some of the last Air
Liquide 2K Cryoplant projects and turbomachine developments.


Introduction to Pride Cryogenics
Author: Sun Nora-bo
This presentation introduces the company Pride Cryogenics, Nanjing, China. The company
and its products will be discussed.
CSIC Pride (Nanjing) Cryogenic Technology Co., Ltd. (Pride Cryogenics) is a technology
oriented company concentrated on the development and manufacturing of cryocoolers and
cryogenic engineering application devices. Pride Cryogenics’ products include 4 K GM
cryocoolers, 10 K GM cryocoolers, 77 K GM cryocoolers, cryostats, helium reliquefier, gas
recovery, purification and liquefaction systems and other customized cryogenic systems.
1. Constantly focus on technology innovation.
2. Reliable capability and senior product performance.
3. Widely used in various application (superconducting magnet/ cryogenic physics/ magnet
1. Professional design and convenient implementation.
2. Worldwide representatives will assure on time shipping and fast reply.
3. Meet variety demands and requirements.



Introduction to Vacree Technologies
Author: Bellisimo Yu
This presentation introduces the company Vacree technologies, Hefei, China, its expertise,
products, applications and recent developments.
Expertise: design, engineering, manufacture, test, delivery and installation.
Vacree technologies produces cryostats, cryogenic helium purifiers, valve boxes, and multichannel
cryogenic transfer lines. All these products can be customized to meet various
requirements. The applicable standards can include ASME, EN, DIN, ISO. etc.
Typical applications can be found in research infrastructures or laboratories working on
superconducting particle accelerators and superconducting magnets, high-temperature
superconducting cables, space applications, defense, industrial gases, semiconductors and
optical fibers, etc.
Recent Developments:
1. Large Cryostat (4025x1450x2300mm) for SC spoke cavity for CiADS
2. 2 K (vertical test cryostat (Φ850x5200) for Peking University
3. 2K valve box for BEPCII
4. Multi-channel cryogenic transmission pipeline for SHINE
5. Vacuum insulated pipeline for FRIB
6. More than 50 sets Cryogenic Helium Purifier (99.999%) for big science projects and
industrial gas company.


Intelliconnect Press Release

Announcements | October 28th, 2020

Intelliconnect Gain Two New ISO Accreditations: UK manufacturing facility now approved to ISO 14001 and ISO 45001.

Intelliconnect (Europe) Ltd the UK based specialist manufacturer of RF, waterproof and cryogenic connectors and cable assemblies has been awarded accreditation to ISO 14001 and ISO 45001, adding to their existing ISO 9001:2015 quality standard and SC21 silver performance standard for  the Aerospace, Defence, Security and Space Industry Supply Chain Programme.
ISO 14001 provides assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved. This ensures that best practice manufacturing processes and materials management are assured.
ISO 45001 specifies the requirements for an occupational health and safety (OH&S) management system, and gives guidance for its use, to enable organisations to provide safe and healthy workplaces by preventing work-related injury and ill health, as well as by proactively improving its OH&S performance.
Roy Phillips, Managing Director of Intelliconnect, comments, “Intelliconnect is completely signed up to high quality, responsible and ethical manufacturing practices and ensuring the best conditions in the workplace for all of our Team.
With these new accreditations, together with our existing ISO 9001 and SC21 approvals, we aim to exceed all relevant working practices and product quality required by our customers and society at large, including being accredited Living Wage employers.”

Intelliconnect (Europe) Ltd  is the largest UK based manufacturer of RF, microwave, waterproof and cryogenic connectors and cable harnesses suitable for applications including wearable technology, medical, telecoms, satcoms, military, aerospace, space, general microwave communications, rail traction, oil and gas and marine.
Intelliconnect also manufacture the market leading Pisces range of waterproof RF connectors, coaxial adaptors to facilitate inter-series connection and gender change etc. dust-caps and offer value added services.
Their recently launched and fast-growing cryogenic cable assembly business CryoCoax supplies the growing market for quantum computing, medical, research, test and measurement and the emerging low temperature computing markets. Intelliconnect’s cable division are specialist manufacturers of affordable, high quality, high frequency microwave cables including triaxial assemblies, semi-rigid, semi-flexible and cryogenic cables as well as standard RG/LMR type products. Cables can be waterproofed to IP68 and include special features including phase matching and ruggedised assemblies for use in harsh environments.

Formed in the UK in 2003 in response to the almost complete abandonment of the UK by the RF connector manufacturing industry, Intelliconnect joined forces with a small innovative US operation in 2004 and has quickly become a market leader in design led manufacturing of RF connectors, waterproof multi-pin connectors and cable assemblies. Both the UK and USA divisions of Intelliconnect now enjoy a growing reputation for high quality products and first class service. Their product range includes waterproof connectors which have become established as the solution of choice for specifiers in the marine, oil and gas, defence, medical and general antenna markets.
They produce a range of triaxial components which are recognised as the best quality available in the market today. Their Custom design service, which attracts no NRE charges, is the quickest available in the connector industry today. Intelliconnect also offer a full range of standard RF connectors and a cable assembly service.
Intelliconnect is unable and does not wish to compete with the plethora of low-cost offshore product available in the market today. Rather they offer traditional engineering values coupled with innovation, agility and a passion for serving their customers.

Editorial Contact
Roy Phillips
01245 347145

Air Liquide acquires Cryoconcept

Announcements | October 8th, 2020

Air Liquide has acquired 80% of the capital of the French company Cryoconcept, which specialises in dilution refrigeration - a technology allowing to reach very low temperatures. This transaction enables Air Liquide to strengthen its expertise in the field of extreme, or close to absolute zero, cryogenics, to propose a broader offer and accelerate the development of Cryoconcept’s activities.

Read more on the official website of our Gold Corporate Member.

Intelliconnect Press Release

Announcements | August 2nd, 2020

Intelliconnect (CryoCoax Division) and Delft Circuits BV are proud to announce the signing of a Sales and Technology partnership agreement which sees CryoCoax becoming the sole UK and US distributor for Delft Circuits unique and innovative product family.

The Delft Circuits product combines flexible cryogenic cabling with standard RF connector interfaces in order to produce an interconnect solution which offers both single and multi-channel cables which combine microwave performance with compactness, durability and a low thermal load.
Roy Phillips, Intelliconnect’s CEO was enthusiastic in his assessment of the agreement. “This product is a potential game-changer in the world of cryogenic interconnects. We see it as the perfect complement to our existing range of Cryogenic cables and assemblies. The technical brilliance and innovation of the Delft Circuits team combined with our connector and
commercial expertise is the perfect combination.”

Daan Kuitenbrouwer, Founder and COO of Delft Circuits was equally keen to commend the partnership. “ We are very excited to join forces with IntelliConnect-CryoCoax providing innovative flexible cabling solutions for cryogenic environments with exceptional customer service.”


Delft Circuits was founded in 2017 providing a new approach to cabling and i/o in general for quantum computing and internet setups, which require increasingly high numbers of interconnects. To this end, Delft Circuits has set up an inhouse production- and development facility, where it designs, produces and tests its products. After two years of development, their proof-of-concept microwave channels have matured to ready-for-sales products and were brought to the market in early 2019. The next steps in production capabilities and microwave components are being developed to expand the product portfolio. With these developments, we address the (future) requirements of our customer base which consists of many cryo- and quantum customers worldwide.

CryoCoax is the UK/US based division of Intelliconnect solely focused on providing for the RF Interconnect needs of the worldwide Cryogenics market. Based on a business model of Innovative Design, Excellent Manufacturing, unrivalled Customer service and technology led partnerships, Intelliconnect – CryoCoax has seen significant and continuing growth in Quantum Computing, Research, Test and Measurement, Space and Medical applications during the past six years.

ECC2020 - canceled

Announcements | May 18th, 2020

We are sorry to announce that the European Course of Cryogenics will not take place this year, due to the current Covid-19 pandemic. We look forward to next year.

28ICEC-ICMC2020 canceled

Announcements | March 29th, 2020

The 28thICEC-ICMC2020 has been canceled and postponed to 2022. Hereafter you may read the official communication of the Organizing Commettee.

Dear colleagues,

we hope this message finds you well.
In recent weeks, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) worldwide has raised great health concerns and heavily impacted our societies. We would like to take this opportunity to wish you and your family all safe and healthy. The organizing committees of the ICEC28-ICMC 2020 has been closely monitoring the developments of the COVID-19 in the past months. We have thoroughly investigated and discussed various factors impacting the conference with the ICEC & ICMC committee members, health officials, academics and industries. After careful consideration and comprehensive evaluation of currently available information, including the escalating health concerns, possible restrictions on international traveling, ongoing
uncertainties of the virus development, etc., we have made the difficult decision to cancel the ICEC28-ICMC 2020, originally scheduled on 31st August – 4th September
in Hangzhou, China (

We understand this might be disappointing for those who love the ICEC-ICMC for years and our young-generation colleagues as well. However, we must put your health, safety and security on our highest priorities. All the financial supports received from the international and domestic sponsors will be 100% returned as soon as possible. Fortunately, we would like to further update you that, as kindly approved by the ICEC-ICMC committees, the next conference ICEC28-ICMC 2022 will be still held in Hangzhou, China in 2022 in order to maintain the long-lasting tradition of alternating between Asia and Europe. The ICEC-ICMC conference to be organized by CERN, originally planned in 2022, is shifted to 2024. We sincerely hope that you will continue to support our cryogenic society by attending the ICEC28-ICMC 2022.

We will be very grateful if you could kindly share the above news to your colleagues. We extend our profound thanks to our colleagues around the world for your understanding, suggestions and support. We will do our best to welcome you and serve you a successful ICEC28-ICMC 2022 in Hangzhou, China. Facing to the unprecedented challenge together, we believe the normal world will and must come back soon.

Please stay safe and stay healthy.

Sincerely yours,
ICEC28-ICMC 2020
Organizing Committee
27th March 2020

ECD2020 postponed

Announcements | March 20th, 2020

In view of the worldwide developments of the Corona-crisis we decided to postpone the European Cryogenics Days. At this moment,  the situation in Europa is rapidly deteriorating and it is unclear what the coming weeks will bring. Anticipating on earlier developments in China, we hope that by the end of May the worst is over, but most probably the situation of daily life will not yet have returned to “normal”. It is not decided yet whether the ECD will be postponed to later this year, or whether it is completely canceled and the next ECD will be the one in 2021.

On behalf of the local organizing committee and the Board of the CSE,
Marcel ter Brake and Srinivas Vanapalli

8th European Space Cryogenics Workshop Postponed

Announcements | March 11th, 2020

ESA announces that the 8th Space Cryogenics Workshop is postponed to the beginning of 2021, due to the international situation with the Covid-19 Virus.

European Cryogenics Course 2020

Announcements | February 29th, 2020

The application for the European Cryogenics Course (ECC) 2020 is now open.

The Course is organized by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Dresden (TUD) / Germany, the Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering of the Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (WUST) / Poland and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) of Trondheim / Norway.
Lecturers are members of the organizing universities and a number of invited external experts. In addition to the lessons, the program of the ECC includes technical excursions, tutorials and demonstrations. The weekends are foreseen mainly for social activities and travel.
The course will finish with two written examinations concerning the two main subjects (cryogenics, fundamentals and processes).

The ECC will extend over 3 weeks during Summer 2020 and is open to all graduate and doctoral students. Due to the limited capacity interested students should apply for participating before the end of April.

Locations and dates will be:
Aug. 10th  - 14th, 2020   Dresden - Basics, liquid hydrogen technology
Aug. 17th  - 21st, 2020   Wroclaw - Helium cryogenics, cryostat technology
Aug. 24th  - 28th, 2020   Trondheim - Liquified natural gas, coolers.
In case that not the full period of three weeks can be made available by a prospective participant, individual solutions can be arranged.

Detailed information about the application process and the program of the course may be found on the flyer or at the dedicated webpage.

You may use moreover the enclosed flyer to inform potentially interested persons.
Since 2008 the ECC collects  participants from all over Europe.

For interested young professionals often a sponsorship arrangement could be agreed with the respective employer to allow an additional participation.  

Applications should be sent until end of April. Later applications can be regarded only in case of remaining places or by waiting list. The course usually is overbooked, therefore early applications are suggested. For the same reason, fitting pre-requisitions and a specific cryogenic interest should be demonstrated.

ECD2020 - 2nd Announcement

Announcements | February 27th, 2020

The registration for the ECD2020 is now open! Read the 2nd announcement for information about the event program and the confirmed talks.

New position available at Demaco

Careers | February 24th, 2020

Demaco (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) is looking for a Sales Engineer.

Find more information and other vacancies in our careers section.

Cryogenics solutions for quantum applications

Announcements | January 19th, 2020

Webinar free of charge on January 23 2020 at 3 p.m. Have a look here for more information.

New career opportunities available

Careers | January 12th, 2020

See our career section for new job opportunities in the field.

New career opportunities available

Careers | January 11th, 2020

See our career section for new job opportunities in the field.

21 ICC - Call for Papers

Announcements | January 10th, 2020

The 21st International Cryocooler Conference invites proposals for presentations at ICC21, to be held in Orlando Florida on June 15-18, 2020.  The deadline for abstract submission is the 4th of January 2020.

The organizing commetee looks forward to you joining with leaders from industry, government, and academia as a participant in this premier global conference on cryocooler technology. Presentation topics include cutting edge technical issues and solutions related to cryocooler design, modeling, development, testing, and use in world-wide cryocooler applications.The meeting will feature 3 days of oral and poster presentations, plus a Foundations of Cryocoolers short course.

The Orlando Hilton Lake Buena Vista meeting location is in the center of Orlando's Disney attractions and offers extensive vacation options for presenters and their families.  These include Disney's Magic Kingdom, Animal Kingdom, and Epcot Center.

Visit the ICC website for detailed instructions on Abstract submittal and on the conference's beautiful Orlando venue. Future web updates will cover the meeting specifics and final program as they are established later in spring 2020.